The Republic of India (Bharat Ganarajya) is a nation of 28 states and 7 territories. Forming the greater part of South Asia, it has a coastline of over 7,000 kilometres, borders Pakistan to the west, the People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. It is adjacent to three island nations of the Indian Ocean ? the Maldives to the southwest, Sri Lanka to the south, and Indonesia to the southeast. India also claims a border with Afghanistan to the northwest. The Lakshadweep Islands and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the farthest territories of India.
The Constitution of India also recognizes Bharat as the official name of the nation. It is in wide popular use as is the colloquial name Hindustan. Being home to over one billion people, India is the second most populous country in the world and also seventh largest country by geographical area. Human settlement stretches back 9,000 years with the Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedic Civilization. Famous for its rich religious traditions, four of the major world religions?Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism?all have their origins in India, even as Islam and Christianity have a rich heritage and are pursued by large segments of the population. India's national language is Hindi and there are 22 official languages recognized that are spoken across its widespread regions, but English is also spoken by a large segment of its people. India also has one of the most diverse populations of wildlife, geographical terrain and climate systems found anywhere in the world.
Once the home of the empires of the Mauryas, Guptas and Mughals, India was steadily colonized in the nineteenth century. After an intense but largely non-violent struggle for independence from the British Empire, India became an independent, united nation in 1947. Following decades of efforts fighting intense poverty, illiteracy, food shortages, epidemics and poor living conditions, India has developed an economy that is the fourth-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and the tenth largest in nominal terms. Once largely dependent on agriculture, India is now home to diverse manufacturing and high-technology industries. India's middle-class exceeds 300 million people and it is an important centre of international trade. India is the world's largest liberal democracy, and became a declared nuclear power in 1974.

Republic of India

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate"

Sanskrit: सत्यमेव जयते ("Truth Alone Triumphs")

Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana"
Location of India
Capital New Delhi

28°34′ N 77°12′ E
Largest city Mumbai (Bombay)
Official language(s) Hindi, English, and 21 other languages
 - President
 - Prime Minister
Federal republic
Pranab Mukherjee
Narendra Modi
 - Declared
 - Republic
From the United Kingdom
 - Total
 - Water (%)
3,287,590 km² (7th)
1,269,346 sq mi 
 - 2006 est.
 - 2001 census
 - Density
1,192,225,812 (2nd)
329/km² (19th)
852/sq mi 
 - Total
 - Per capita
2005 estimate
$3.678 trillion (4th)
$3400 (125th)
HDI (2003) 0.602 (127th) ? medium
Currency Rupee (Rs.)1 (INR)
Time zone
 - Summer (DST)
IST (UTC+5:30)
not observed (UTC+5:30)
Internet TLD .in
Calling code +91